History of batik in Indonesia

Historically batik has recognized since the century of XVII, come from ancestorsepoch written and painted at palm leaf. At the moment motif of batik was dominated with animal form and crop. But nowdays, the development of batik is in a long a progress, that is from animal painting patterns and crop by degrees change over at abstraction motif looking like cloud, temple relief, puppets of beber etcetera. Hereinafter, the combine of painting’s pattern and clothes frieze art resulted batik drawn as we know today.

The type and pattern of traditional batik is various kind. But the variation of pattern is according to each culture and philosophy which is many kind. The variety culture in Indonesia has supported the born of kind batik in tradisioanal type and pattern there has own specialty and characteristic.

Growth of Batik in Indonesia

The history of Batik in Indonesia was related to Majapahit Kingdom and after. Batik has develoved in the empire of Mataram, and the kingdom of Solo and Yogyakarta.

Artistry of batik represent artistry of picture above cloth for clothes becoming one of the culture of Indonesia epoch king family first. In the beginning batik was done in limited just in palace and the result is for the king’s clothes and family and also its follower. Because of many follower of king which’s kept out palace. So, the art of batik was brought by them gone out palace and done in their place.

making a batik
Soon and later, in development of batik was imitated by closest people and spread out to be worked by of woman in it’s household to fill spare time. Hereinafter, batik which is the beginning to be the families king clothes, later become the clothes for common people, women and men are wear of it.

White materials which was used at that time was resulted of homespun. While the colour of materials are used the original flora made by our selt for Indonesia, example : tree of mengkudu, tinggi, soga, nila and it’s soda materials is made from dusty soda, and also it’s salt is made from mud.

So, Indonesian’s batik has been recognized since Majapahit kingdom and development fill next empire. For the strarting to spread up the batik art to common people and specially Java’s tribe is after the end of century or early century of XIX. The last product of batik was batik drawn (batik tulis) until the XX century, the stamp’s batik (batik cap) has begun familiar after the first word war or about a year 1920. Nowadays, batik have become part traditional Indonesian textile.

Sumber : http://www.batikmarkets.com/en/about_batik.php


Indonesian Green Cake Recipe

The Green Cake Recipe

Preparation time: 30 minutes
Cooking time: 1 hour
For 20 pieces


  • 7 eggs yolk
  • 120 gram sugar
  • 100 cc water
  • 1/2 tsp baking powder
  • 1/2 tsp crème of tartar
  • 1/2 tsp salt
  • 1/2 jars pandan extract (or less if you want light green color)
  • 75 cc vegetable oil
  • 7 eggs white
  • 80 gram sugar
  • 180 gram cake meal


  • Preheat the oven at 180 degree Celsius.
  • Mix together the eggs yolk and sugar until they are fluffy and creamy for about 25 minutes.
  • In the mean time make a mix of water, oil, pandan extract, salt, baking powder and cream of tartar in a bowl. Set aside.
  • Make also a mix of the eggs white and sugar in a separate bowl. Mix together for about 10 minutes with the mixer until you get a fluffy mixture. Set aside.
  • Add the cake meal in the eggs yolk mixture. Stir it until the meal well mixed with the mixture. Then add the mixture of oil, water and pandan extract. Stir it gently until everything well mixed. And for the last thing, add the fluffy eggs white mixture. Stir them well and pour in the baking pan that you’ve already buttered it first and bake it in the oven for about 1 hour.
  • After 1 hour and before you take them out of the oven, make sure that the cake is really done by inserting a sate skewer into the cake and when you take it out you haven’t a wet part on the skewer, and then is the cake really done.


Sumber : http://www.discover-java-and-bali.com/green-cake.html

Strawberry Shortcake


  • 3 pints fresh strawberries
  • 1/2 cup white sugar
  • 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour
  • 4 teaspoons baking powder
  • 2 tablespoons white sugar
  • 1/4 teaspoon salt
  • 1/3 cup shortening
  • 1 egg
  • 2/3 cup milk
  • 2 cups whipped heavy cream


  1. Slice the strawberries and toss them with 1/2 cup of white sugar. Set aside.
  2. Preheat oven to 425 degrees F (220 degrees C). Grease and flour one 8 inch round cake pan.
  3. In a medium bowl combine the flour, baking powder, 2 tablespoons white sugar and the salt. With a pastry blender cut in the shortening until the mixture resembles coarse crumbs. Make a well in the center and add the beaten egg and milk. Stir until just combined.
  4. Spread the batter into the prepared pan. Bake at 425 degrees F (220 degrees C) for 15 to 20 minutes or until golden brown. Let cool partially in pan on wire rack.
  5. Slice partially cooled cake in half, making two layers. Place half of the strawberries on one layer and top with the other layer. Top with remaining strawberries and cover with the whipped cream.

Sumber : http://allrecipes.com/recipe/strawberry-shortcake/

Malin Kundang Story

At one time, there lived a family of fishermen on the coast of Sumatra region. The familyconsists of father, mother and a son named Malin Kundang. Because of family financialcondition of concern, the father decided to make a living in the country across the vastseas. And only the Malin and his mother in their huts. A week, two weeks, a month, twomonths even more 1 year old, Malin’s father also did not return to his hometown. So shehad to replace the position of Malin’s father to make a living.

Malin including a smart kid but a bit naughty. He often chasing chickens and hithim with a broom. One day, when Malin was chasing chickens, she tripped on a rock andinjured his right arm hit the rock. It becomes a scratch wound dilengannya and not getlost.

After growing up, Malin Kundang feel sorry for her mother who slam the bonesfor a living to raise themselves. He thought of making a living abroad in the hope thatlater when I returned to my hometown, he had become a wealthy man. Malin interestedin the invitation of a merchant ship captain who was once poor now become a wealthyman.Malin Kundang the point to his mother.

Her mother does not agree with the original intent Malin Kundang, but due tohold urgent Malin, Malin Kundang mother finally agreed though with a heavy heart.After preparing enough supplies and equipment, Malin immediately headed to the dock accompanied by his mother. “My son, if you are successful and become a wealthy man,do not you forget about your mother and this halamannu ward, son”, says Malin Kundang mother tearfully. Malin ridden ships increasingly remote with a wave accompanied byMother Malin Kundang. During his stay in the boat, Malin Kundang lot to learn about the seamanship of the crews that have been experienced. Along the way, riding the shiptibatiba Malin Kundang were attacked by pirates. All commodities traders who were onthe ship seized by pirates. Even most of the crew and people on the ship were killed bythe pirates.

Malin Kundang very lucky he was not killed by the pirates, because when ithappened, Malin immediately hid in a small space enclosed by the timber. MalinKundang in limbo amid the sea, until finally ship stranded on a beach. With the rest of the existing energy, Malin Kundang walked to the nearest village from the beach.Arriving in the village, Malin Kundang helped by people in the village after previouslytelling what happened to him. Malin marooned villages where the village is very fertile.With tenacity and perseverance in work, Malin gradually became a wealthy man. He hasa lot of merchant ships with men of more than 100 people.

Having become rich, Malin Kundang to marry a girl to be his wife. News MalinKundang who has become rich and have been married to the mother also Malin Kundang. Mother Malin Kundang feel grateful and very happy his son had succeeded. Since then,the mother Malin Kundang every day go to the dock, waiting for her son who may return  to his hometown. After some time married, Malin and his wife made the voyagewith a ship that big and beautiful with the crew and a lot of bodyguards.

Malin Kundang mothers who stay with their children every day, saw a very beautiful ship, went to the harbor. He saw two people standing on the deck of a ship. He believes that standing was his son and his wife Malin Kundang. Malin Kundang descended from the ship. He was greeted by his mother. Once close enough, his mother saw right dilengan dozen people injured, the more convinced his mother that he wasapproached Malin Kundang. “Malin Kundang, my son, why did you go so long without sending you?”, He said, hugging Malin Kundang. But what happens then? MalinKundang immediately release her mother’s arms and pushed it down. “Women do notknow yourself, as carelessly claimed her”, says Malin Kundang at his mother. MalinKundang pretended not to recognize her mother, embarrassed by her mother who is oldand wearing tattered clothes. “She’s your mother?”, Malin Kundang wife ask. “No, hewas just a beggar who pretended to be admitted as a mother to get my property,” Malinsaid to his wife.

Hearing statement and treated arbitrarily by his son, Malin Kundang mother veryangry. He had not expected her to be rebellious child. Because anger is mounting, Malin’smother raised her hand, saying “Oh God, if he was my son, I swear he became a rock”.Soon the wind roared loud and violent storm destroyed the ship came Malin Kundang.After that Malin Kundang body slowly becomes stiff and over time eventually shapedinto a rock.


Reference : http://www.scribd.com/doc/29216840/Malin-Kundang-Story

Biography of Einstein

Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Six weeks later the family moved to Munich, where he later on began his schooling at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland and in 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor’s degree.

During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton*. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.

After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement, he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the problems of physics and the determination to solve them. He had a strategy of his own and was able to visualize the main stages on the way to his goal. He regarded his major achievements as mere stepping-stones for the next advance.

At the start of his scientific work, Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.

In his early days in Berlin, Einstein postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation and in 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics.

In the 1920’s, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology. After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach, geometrisation, to the majority of physicists.

Einstein’s researches are, of course, well chronicled and his more important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Among his non-scientific works, About Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy (1934), and Out of My Later Years (1950) are perhaps the most important.

Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the 1920’s he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East and he was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935.

Einstein’s gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in intellectual solitude and, for relaxation, music played an important part in his life. He married Mileva Maric in 1903 and they had a daughter and two sons; their marriage was dissolved in 1919 and in the same year he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936. He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey.

Reference : http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-bio.html


R. Soekarno1 (was born in Blitar, East Java, on June 6 1901 – died in Jakarta, on June 21 1970 in the age 69 years) was Indonesian President first that hold the office of in the period 1945 – 1966. He played the role important to liberate the Indonesian nation from the Dutch colonisation. He was the Kepancasilaan excavator. He was the Proclaimer of Indonesian Independence (was with Mohammad Hatta) that happened on August 17 1945. He published the Letter Of Instruction on March 11 1966

Supersemar that was controversial that, that it seems, including his contents was assigned Lieutenant General Soeharto to pacify and maintain his authority. But this Supersemar was misused by Lieutenant General Soeharto to undermine his authority with the road to accuse him of taking part in masterminding the Movement on September 30. The charges caused People’s Consultative Assembly Sementara that his member was replaced with the person who for Soeharto, shifted the presidency to Soeharto

The background and education

Soekarno was born by the name of Kusno Sosrodihardjo. His father was

named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo, a teacher in Surabaya, Java. His mother named Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai came from Buleleng, Bali .

When small Soekarno lived with his grandfather in Tulungagung, East Java. In the age 14 years, a friend of his father who was named Oemar Said Tjokroaminoto asked Soekarno to live in Surabaya and to be sent to school to Hoogere Burger School (H.B.S.) there while reciting the Koran in the Tjokroaminoto place. In Surabaya, Soekarno often met the leaders of the Islam union, the organisation that was led by Tjokroaminoto at that time. Soekarno afterwards gathered with the Jong Java organisation (the Javanese Young Man).

Graduate from H.B.S. in 1920, Soekarno continued to Technische Hoge School (now ITB) in Bandung, and was finished during 1925. During in Bandung, Soekarno interacted with Tjipto Mangunkusumo and Dr. Douwes Dekker, that at that time were the leader of the National Indische Partij organisation.


Reference : http://theleadingfiguresautobiography.blogspot.com/2009/01/soekarno.html

History of Music

Before 1800

The first studies of Western musical history date back to the middle of the 18th century. G.B. Martini published a three volume history titled Storia della musica (History of Music) between 1757 and 1781. Martin Gerbert published a two volume history of sacred music titled De cantu de musica sacra in 1774. Gerbert followed this work with a three volume work Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra containing significant writings on sacred music from the 3rd century onwards in 1784.



Ludwig van Beethoven‘s manuscript sketch for Piano Sonata No. 28, Movement IV, Geschwind, doch nicht zu sehr und mit Entschlossenheit (Allegro), in his own handwriting. The piece was completed in 1816.

In the 20th century, the work of Johannes Wolf and others developed studies in Medieval music and early Renaissance music. Wolf’s writings on the history of musical notation are considered to be particularly notable by musicologists. Historical musicology has played a critical role in renewed

interest in Baroque music as well as medieval and Renaissance music. In particular, the authentic performance movement owes much to historical musicological scholarship. Towards the middle of the 20th century, musicology (and its largest subfield of historical musicology) expanded significantly as a field of study. Concurrently the number of musicological and music journals increased to create further outlets for the publication of research. The domination of German language scholarship ebbed as significant journals sprang up throughout the West, especially America.

Reference :